Inside-Outside Part Two

In this post I will describe more details about the dyebaths we made at the Inside-Outside Conference in Keene on October 21st. We ran four dyebaths with madder root, marigolds, weld, and orange cosmos.  As usual when I am running or leading an event, I didn’t get any photos. Hopefully the notes provided here will be useful even if they are lacking in visual information.

First of all, the fiber we were dyeing was woolen yarn. We dyed four skeins, each of which was 4 oz. I had pre-mordanted the skeins many weeks earlier with aluminum sulfate at a rate of 2 Tbsp. per 8 oz. (2 skeins could fit in a pot). The skeins had dried in the meanwhile, and had been soaked in water on the day of the workshop to “wet them out”, i.e. make sure they were thoroughly wet before dyeing.

Each dyebath heated for about 45 minutes to an hour. While they were heating, we were inside and they were outside, so we did not monitor the temperature. We strained the baths one at a time over a fifteen minute period of time. The skeins only sat in the dye baths briefly at first, long enough for participants to see some color emerging on the skeins. Then I had to pack everything up and bring it home. I transported the wet skeins in tubs and the dyebaths in empty gallon jugs. Once I got everything home, I put the skeins back into the pots with the dyebaths to soak. The next day, I heated the skeins in the dyebaths for a full hour and let them soak overnight again before pulling them out to dry and eventually wash.

Madder–The day before the conference I weighed out 4 oz. of madder roots, put them to soak in a pot of water, added about a teaspoon of calcium carbonate and a Tablespoon of soda ash (which made the bath about pH 8), heated the pot to about 160 degrees, maintained the heat for an hour, and then let the whole thing cool overnight. I’m not exactly sure where I picked up this term, but when I’m heating up plant material to make a bath I often refer to it as an “extraction”. So, this was the first extraction of the madder roots. I saved the strained liquid from that extraction, plus the original roots, and we made a second extraction from that same 4 oz. roots at the workshop. We added more water to the roots, plus calcium carbonate and soda ash to get a really high pH–it was like pH 10 or 11! I figured this wouldn’t hurt the roots. Plus we were pressed for time and getting more water to dilute the bath involved running up a flight of stairs and down a hallway to a bathroom with a shallow sink. So, pH 11 was good enough for the time being. We let that heat up on the low/simmer side of the hotplate for about 45 minutes.

When we came back outside to make the dyebaths, we strained out the roots and combined the high-pH extraction with my original extraction. The lower-pH bath was a much more orange color, whereas the high pH bath was much more of a cherry-red. We could see a difference in the color of the foam at the surface when we poured the two baths together. Together they made a sensible pH for wool. We lowered the first 4-oz. skein into the dyebath so that participants could see the color “strike”. That’s what it’s called when color first starts to attach to the fiber. It happens quickly with some dyes and more slowly with others.

The next day, I re-heated the original skein in the original bath for an hour at 140 degrees or so, and let it sit overnight. Then I exhausted that bath with a second 4 oz. skein. After that, I extracted the same roots two more times with calcium carbonate and soda ash to keep the pH around pH 8-9. I combined the two extractions to make a third dyebath, and dyed a third woolen skein that had been premordanted with alum. The combined exhaust dyebath was also pH 9. The color was practically indistinguishable from the original exhaust skein. Here are the three skeins together once they were all rinsed and dried:

It is possible to obtain much richer shades of red with madder root by making a more concentrated dye bath, but then you are looking at days and days of exhausting the bath, resulting in a small amount of reddish yarn and lots and lots of pink yarn. I tried to go easy on myself this time.

Weld–This is another pH sensitive dye plant that makes a kind of blah greenish yellow at a neutral pH and eye-poppingly bright yellows at a higher pH. We used 4 oz. of dried plant material. In an ideal world this would have had time to heat, soak, then sit around a while and steep. As it was, the plant material heated up for 45 minutes to an hour, then we strained it right away to make the dyebath. We added soda ash and calcium carbonate to get a bath of pH 8, and after all was said and done I got a nice yellow. I did not exhaust that bath.

Orange Cosmos–This is also a pH sensitive dye, which becomes more red in color at a higher pH. However, we didn’t bother to modify the pH in this workshop. We used 4 oz. of frozen flowers. Like the others, this dyebath heated up for 45 minutes to an hour before straining. The next day when I was dyeing the skein at a more leisurely ace, I left the pH alone. I didn’t even check it, so I can’t tell you what it was. The color was a pleasing tangerine, but not dark enough to bother exhausting.

Marigolds–We used 4 oz. of dried flowers to make the dyebath with no pH modification. The resulting color after heating for a full hour on Sunday was a sort of mustardy yellow or yellow-orange.

Together they make a nice range of colors. Here are all the skeins again (this is the same photos as my earlier post), minus the third madder exhaust:

From left to right: madder exhaust, first madder bath, orange cosmos, marigold, weld. I decided to use the same ratio of plant material to fiber for every dyebath, namely a one-to-one ratio. This was primarily to keep things simple for all of us. We could have made a more concentrated bath of weld, but 4 oz. of plant material filled up the pot, so that was really our limiting factor. A higher ratio of plant material would make for a stronger dyebath.

I hope some of these educators got inspired to dye with their students (or at home just for fun)!

Inside-Outside

On October 21st, 2017 I presented a workshop on growing and using dye plants with kids at the Inside-Outside Conference in Keene, NH. The conference was a collaboration of several local organizations, including Antioch University New England, the Monadnock Region Placed-Based Education Committee, the Harris Center for Conservation Education, the Caterpillar Lab, Symonds Elementary School (where the conference was held), and the Keene School District. The theme was “Promising Practices in Nature- and Place-Based Elementary Education.” You can view the full brochure here.

The audience was K-6 educators from a variety of educational settings. I don’t mention this very often on this blog, but I actually am a teacher! I co-teach in a combined first and second grade at the Common School in Amherst, MA, where I’ve been working since 2004. Most of the time, I am in the classroom doing all the usual academic things: reading, writing, word study, math, science, social studies, arts and crafts. I do fiber and dye projects with kids when I can, and the rest of the time I squeeze it in on weekends and vacations.

Back to the conference: My time-frame was 2:15-3:45 in the afternoon. This is a normal amount of time for most workshops at a day-long conference like this, even hands-on workshops. The only trouble is that all the steps in natural dyeing take a long time. If you want to make a dye bath with fresh, frozen, or dried plant material it takes at least 45 minutes to an hour, and then in an ideal world you let that sit overnight. Dyeing the skeins of yarn takes the same length of time. I always let the skeins or fiber sit overnight if I can, and I let them dry before I rinse them. Also, you have to mordant the fiber ahead of time. You cannot possibly fit it all in to an hour and a half. Nevertheless, I had committed to teach this thing. Making color with plants is so magical and so do-able that I am always happy to encourage people to try it.

So, I was excited about it, but also anxious. Basically I was counting on the fact that this would be a group of folks who are interested in process over product, and would want to see and participate in how the dye baths are made. Hopefully people felt satisfied with what we were able to do in that time:

  • make the dye baths (measure/weigh the materials, add pH amendments, test pH, set the baths to heat up)
  • talk about some considerations for setting up a dye plant garden or incorporating dye plants into an existing garden
  • look at some examples of projects I’ve done with kids
  • browse some of my favorite reference books
  • strain the dyebaths and put in the yarn

We were literally putting in the last skein of yarn at 3:45!

True to its name, we were outside for part of the workshop, and inside for part of it. When I set up in the morning, the outdoor space was shady and pleasant. A helpful custodian helped me run two long extension cords out of two windows, down to the ground on the playground below. There, I set up two portable electric burners. I set up everything we would need for dyeing outdoors, I set up books, hand-outs, and project samples in the classroom, and then headed off to enjoy the rest of the conference.

By 2:15, the sun had come around to our side of the building and it was blazingly hot. You wouldn’t have anticipated a blazingly hot day in late October, perhaps, but such it was. I think it was about 80 degrees. I had a great group of participants, about 20 folks, who obligingly tolerated the blazing heat for a few minutes while we got started. But it was really uncomfortable! I was feeling bad about it, but also feeling kind of stuck and unsure of what to do. Then, someone pointed out that it was shady just around the corner of the building. Yay! We moved things around the corner, and Ellen Doris (a former colleague at the Common School and my contact for the conference) brought an extra extension cord. We all breathed a sigh of relief in the small patch of shade behind a wall, and proceeded to set up the dye baths.

Here are the skeins drying afterwards on a rack at home:

We used four dyes for this workshop: madder, weld, orange cosmos, and marigolds. In my next post I will go into all the details of exactly how we obtained these colors!

Green Yarn

This has been an extremely prolific year for Queen Anne’s Lace, also known as wild carrot or Daucus carota. It is absolutely everywhere!

Back in July I ran two dyebaths with fresh Queen Anne’s Lace flowers. Since it’s so abundant, I decided to just use the flowers this time, though you can use the whole plant. For the first dyebath, I had no trouble collecting 30 oz. of flowers from various spots around Amherst, including the sides of parking lots, the side of the road, and next to bus stops.

The flowers are incredibly fragrant and sticky, and consequently they host a huge range of insects. When you pick the flowers, all the insects come along, too. This fact gave rise to a new house-hold rule:

I weighed the plant material outdoors! I also made the first dyebath outside on the portable electric stove outdoors. We had some rainy weather after that, so I made the second dyebath indoors using 24 oz. of flowers that I picked in Hadley.

Here’s a pot full of flowers:

Here’s a close-up. It’s a really beautiful plant:

For the first dyebath, I filled the pot with water, heated it to 140 degrees, maintained that for an hour, and then let the plants soak in the pot overnight. The relatively low temperature was due to the fact that my portable electric burner has two rings. One of them can get very hot, but the other only has a “simmer” setting. The Queen Anne’s Lace was on the simmer side, while I mordanted yarn on the other burner.

Here are the strained flowers after they were heated, soaked, and cooled:

The dyebath looked reddish in the pot, but when I put some of the liquid in a jar, it was light gold. The little white dots are flower petals and maybe pollen that didn’t strain out.

For this project, I decided to over-dye some blue woad-dyed woolen yarn from last summer. I hadn’t bothered to mordant the yarn for the woad vat originally, so I had to mordant the skeins before overdyeing with Queen Anne’s Lace. I used aluminum sulfate at the ratios recommended in Rita Buchanan’s A Dyer’s Garden (1 tablespoon per 4 oz. of fiber). It looked pretty funny to put the blue yarns in a pot with clear water:

To mordant wool with aluminum sulfate, pre-soak the scoured yarn in water for at least an hour in a separate tub. Dissolve the mordant in a pot of hot water, then add the wetted out yarn. Bring the temperature up to 180 degrees, maintain that for an hour, then shut off the heat and let the fiber cool in the mordant bath as long as possible. In this case, it cooled overnight.

The next day, I put a 6 oz. skein into the first Queen Anne’s Lace dyebath, heated it to 160 degrees, and kept it between 160-180 degrees for an hour. I let it cool from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m., then pulled it out to dry before rinsing it. I got a very nice shade of green!

Here’s the skein while it’s still in the dyepot, shown with another skein of the same, original shade of blue for comparison. Colors are always darker when they are wet:

Here’s the green skein dripping and drying outside, amidst all the other gorgeous greens of July:

I used the first dyebath again to over-dye a 3 oz. woad-blue skein of wool, and got more of a slate shade of green (less yellow, more blue). It’s in the center in the photo below. When you use the same dyebath again it’s called “exhausting” the bath, and usually results in a lighter color. After the exhaust bath, I poured out the liquid.

The second dyebath I made a couple days later wasn’t quite as strong, only 24 oz. I heated it to 200 degrees, maintained that for an hour, and cooled it overnight. Again, I got a beautiful shade of green on a woad-blue skein. Here are the three skeins once they were all rinsed and dried:

I used the exhaust bath from the second dye bath to over-dye 7 oz. of mohair. It was an extremely pale gray-blue from an exhausted woad vat last summer. I ended up with a sort of pale silvery gray. which was not what I was expecting. In the photo below, there’s a light-yellow lock on the top left corner that shows what the color would have been if the mohair wasn’t already gray-blue.

There is still plenty of Queen Anne’s Lace blooming now that it’s mid-August, but I may turn my sights to other plants next. Goldenrod, perhaps.

Past Speaking Engagements

Over the past year, I have had several opportunities to demonstrate flax processing and talk about natural dyeing. Here is a quick summary of four events that I didn’t get around to writing about when they happened. I just want to document and share them before too much more time passes.

Last August (2016) I did a flax processing demonstration at the Amherst History Museum, in conjunction with the art exhibit “Artifacts Inspire” by the Fiber Artists of Western Massachusetts. The museum asked the participating artists to create original works inspired by objects in the museum’s collection. Two of the pieces in the show were created by Martha Robinson, inspired by two antique hetchels, which are flax processing tools. There’s a good photo of one of her felted pieces here. It was great fun to show people how flax was processed in the past, and to let folks try their hand at using the tools.

Here’s a shot of crowd at the beginning of the demo:

Here I am by the brake and the scutching board:

And here’s Marianne, their consulting curator, getting a kick out of using a hetchel:

The next gig I wanted to mention was my presentation to the Weavers Guild of Springfield on March 4, 2017. I showed a slideshow about planting, growing, harvesting, and retting flax:

Then, I did a quick demonstration of how to use the tools:

It was lovely to meet a new group of weavers, and inspiring to see some old acquaintances there, too.

The third event I wanted to note was the FIBERuary panel I was part of on Feb. 19, 2017 at Sheep and Shawl in Deerfield. FIBERuary is a relatively new event here in Western MA celebrating our local fiber farmers and fiber artists. It’s spearheaded by Carole Adams of Whispering Pines Farm in Colrain, MA. In the past two years it has included a month-long blog and speaker series at Sheep and Shawl. On our panel, we addressed dyeing natural fibers from three perspectives: Linnie Dugas of Woollies of Shirkshire Farm talked about dyeing wool with natural dyes, and brought some luscious dyed batts and roving. I talked about natural dyeing skeins of linen. Scott Norris of Elam’s Widow talked about his process using Procion fiber reactive dyes to dye the linen yarns he uses in his spectacular handwoven kitchen towels.

Last but not least, I was a presenter on a panel at the Fashion Institute of Technology’s Sustainability in Textiles Summer Institute in New York on June 7, 2017. Our panel was called “Local Fiber Connections” on the theme of “Farm to Fashion”. The other panelists were Jeffrey Silberman, Chair of the Textile Development and Marketing Department at FIT, Mimi Prober, designer, and Sara Healy of Buckwheat Bridge Angoras. My portion of the panel was a slideshow about retting and processing flax, and basic information about spinning and weaving linen. Sara has worked with Mimi to create custom blended batts for felted garments in Mimi’s collection.

Jeff, Mimi, some other folks at FIT, myself and other members of the New England Flax and Linen Study Group are working on a Farm to Fashion project in which we are collaborating to grow and process flax, spin and weave it, and produce garments for a runway show! At this point, the flax is still in the field, but it’s an exciting prospect.

 

Farm School Dye Day

One of the fun things I got to do last week was to visit the Farm School in Athol, MA, and to lead a natural dyeing workshop for the participants in their adult farming program. The Farm School combines two of my favorite things: agriculture and education. I had never visited their farm before, so I was thrilled to have the opportunity to be there and to get a better understanding of their different programs. I was greeted by this cheery sign when I first arrived:

Continue reading “Farm School Dye Day”

Bookmark Success!

After I wove off that pink warp, dyed with madder, I finally put a new warp on the loom. It’s a blue warp, dyed with woad, for more “Jack Frost” pattern bookmarks. Amazingly enough, the first three came out exactly the same length! This is a feat of consistency of which I am rarely capable, so I was pretty happy. Here they are:

consistent weaving

What I have been aiming for in my bookmarks is a woven length of 10 inches, with 1 inch of fringe on each end. This allows them to fit exactly into the stylish wrappers Matthew designed, which are 12 inches long. Continue reading “Bookmark Success!”

Bookmark Failures (Successes Coming Soon)

This post is the latest installment in a longer saga about weaving bookmarks with naturally dyed 40/2 linen. The saga spans many months, if not years. I have posted about these bookmarks in the past. You can read my most recent post about it here.

Or you can just catch up on the back story in this post!

My linen bookmarks are woven with 40/2 linen. They are not too time-consuming to produce, though the pricing still works out to a meager hourly rate when I take into account all the steps involved in the dyeing plus the weaving. Continue reading “Bookmark Failures (Successes Coming Soon)”

Massachusetts Agriculture in the Classroom

On March 8th I presented two workshops at the annual conference of Massachusetts Agriculture in the Classroom. You can check out their website here. One workshop was on growing and processing flax, and on ways to incorporate flax into the school curriculum. The other was on growing a dye plant garden at school and using dye plants with kids.

Based on an idea from Joan Morris, shibori artist extraordinaire, I decided to make two swatch books for the dyeing workshop. Each book had five small cloth samples sewn together. The dimensions were 3 inches by 1.5 inches. One swatch book was made up of cellulose (i.e., plant-based) cloth samples, including three kinds of cotton cloth, a linen-rayon blend, and a 100% linen piece. The other was made of protein (animal-derived) cloth, including silk satin, raw silk, and three weights of wool. I mordanted the cellulose swatch books with aluminum acetate at 5% WOG (weight of the goods, or fiber). I mordanted the protein swatch books with aluminum sulfate, at 1 tablespoon per 4 ounces. The protein booklets weighed about 6oz. altogether, and interestingly the cellulose booklets weighed almost the same. Continue reading “Massachusetts Agriculture in the Classroom”

Madder the Inexhaustible Root–Part Two: Pink

If you read my last post, you may be wondering why I wasn’t totally content with my orange linen, as bright and cheery as it was. Basically it’s because I wanted pink. Light pink, to be exact. Light pink 40/2 linen, to be exact, and lots of it. Why? Well…!

A fortunate side-effect of my successful show with Amanda Quinby at the Shelburne Arts Co-op in Shelburne Falls in October was that I sold all of my usual inventory of naturally dyed linen bookmarks and hand-bound books with hand-woven cloth covers. Hence, I need to weave more! My main objective with this madder exhaust project was to create light pink 40/2 linen yarn for weaving heart-motif bookmarks in Huck Lace. I must confess that all the other lovely colors I obtained were just happy by-products in my quest for pink. Continue reading “Madder the Inexhaustible Root–Part Two: Pink”

Madder the Inexhaustible Root–Part One: Orange

Earlier in November, another teacher at school wanted to dye some cloth to create kid-sized monarch butterfly wings as part of her classroom study of butterflies. Her initial dyebaths, composed largely of marigolds combined with some orange cosmos and wild bedstraw roots, had not yielded the color she wanted. I suggested over-dyeing the cloth with madder roots, even though they weren’t from our garden at school. She decided to use some chopped roots that I had bought from Aurora Silk a few years ago, and was pleased with her results.

I asked her to save me the exhausted dyebath and the roots, which she very kindly did. I spent every spare moment of the next two weeks happily creating various shades of pink and orange on linen and cotton-linen blend yarns. I was well-satisfied with my efforts! Here they are:

drying rack madder yarns Continue reading “Madder the Inexhaustible Root–Part One: Orange”